BUILDING PLANNING & DESIGN
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECT OF BUILDING PLANNING AND DESIGN:-
Food, shelter and cloths are the three main essential necessities of the people of which we the Civil Engineers have to participate in the need of shelter i.e. residential building planning. We carry out this project to provide economical and need oriented house to the public. There are three main type of residential building depending on need and cuts. Individual houses, Twin, Bungalows or Row houses and Flats are the main three types of the housing. We have kept in mind the needs of people, cost of the house, and services utilities in working out this project. We have also made necessary survey to find out various aspects of designing, construction and planning.
BYE-LAWS AND REGULATIONS:-
In order to have planned development there must be some uniform rules p
ertaining to various types of development such as residential, commercial and industrial. The byelaws of regulate the development in terns of utility of services. Buildings and other specific requirements for planned development various regions, cities, towns and villages are framing their regulations in terms of building regulations and bye – laws in construction of local climate condition, environment, tradition and life style.
There are various central and local authorities framing building bye-laws for residential, commercial and industrial development. The Government of India l has published National Building Code – 1980 for enforcement f rules for building in 10 parts. This building code serves as a central guideline to frame various building byelaws. The local authority principally adopts these byelaws and makes some changes in consideration of local climate and living conditions.
The Building byelaws are divided into five parts. They are: –
- GENERAL DEFINATIONS
- GENERAL BUILDING REQUIREMENTS
- ADDITIONAL BYELAWS FOR SPECIAL STRUCTURES
- MAINTANANCE OF BUILDINGS
GENERAL BUILDING REQUIREMENTS:-
There are various sections in which specific building requirements are describes. The sections of the building requirements are dealing with minimum plot size, excess to building open air space, height of building in relation to width of streets, parking, elevators, fire protection, lately of building, plinth, seller, height of g-floors, area of rooms, stairs etc.
ADDITIONAL BYE-LAWS FOR SPECIAL STRUCTURES:-
In addition to general building bye-laws there are special sections for which additional bye-laws are framed. The special bye-laws mainly refer to cinemas, theaters, meeting halls, lecture halls, town halls, petrol pump, cabins and survey stations and high rise buildings.
After designing the building one has to get the same approved local authorities i.e. municipal corporation. There are various types of forms to be attached obtain necessary building permission. The licensed engineer or architect has to prepare proposal of development or obtaining necessary permission from sectioning authority. After obtaining building permission i.e. common cement certificate from local municipal corporation. The licensed engineer and structural engineer have to give details and design supervising engineer. Have to inform local Municipal Corporation. Regarding the various stages of progress. On completion of the building completion report is submitted to local Municipal Corporation. for building use permission. After obtaining building use permission the owner has to apply for drainage and water connections for local Municipal Corporation.
Building bye-laws do not provide only about the regulations and requirements of building, obtaining permission for development, supervising the construction and obtaining, accusation permission and connection of services. But also give regulations for maintenance of building in which it is specific that the owner of the building has to maintain and keep in working order. The arrangements of internal fire hydrants, fire lifts and fires, Stair and also to get building examines by a licensed structural engineer who should submit a report of periodical intervals and the owner has to take remedial steps if the structural advises so.
Analytical Design Planning Technique: a model of the detailed building design process
Simon Austin, Andrew Baldwin, Baizhan Li and Paul Waskett stated that current planning practice takes little account of the interdisciplinary, iterative nature of the building design process. This leads to a compromised design process containing inevitable cycles of rework together with associated time and cost penalties in both design and construction. The Analytical Design Planning Technique (ADePT) is a planning methodology which helps to overcome these difficulties. This paper describes the development of a modeling notation and model of the detailed building design process, which forms the ﬁrst stage of ADePT. 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd.
Improving Building Design through Integrated Planning and control.
Simon A. austin, Andrew N. Baldwin &Johnl. Steele describe that the construction industry is acutely aware of the need to improve the integration, planning and control of its design and production processes. A number of projects undertaken within Loughborough, Salford and Cambridge Universities, in collaboration with a number of construction industry organizations, are addressing this issue by investigating, and developing tools to assist, the design and construction process. Emerging from these projects is the common need for IT systems and support that will facilitate the capture, storage and retrieval of project knowledge. It is only by relating these compatible IT applications to a common and recognizable project
process framework that construction industry organizations will be able to make optimum use of the available technological developments. This paper describes the development of techniques and strategies to support the integrated planning and control of design through the collaboration of the main designers, suppliers and contractor working on complex building projects, and discusses the relevance of clustering these in relation to the phases and activities of a generic model of design and construction.
Planning and Design Building Level
- P. linzey, J. F. brotchie describe that the current status of a program for designing at the overall building level is reported. The program optimizes space allocation within a building and can be used to demonstrate interactive effects of one design subsystem on another. Many of these interactive effects are quite subtle, but they can have a major influence on the economic perform- ance of the building. The program was applied in the preliminary design stages for a large office building project in Melbourne, which included a tower containing 700,000 sq. ft of commercial floor space. Consideration of all the costs and benefits involved in a building project, and the use of the discounted present worth as a design merit function, has provided a valuable perspective for design evaluation. Applying these techniques to the pro- posed building project, it was possible to point out many areas where designs can be improved by automated methods.
STRATEGIES FOR INTEGRATED DESIGN OF SUSTAINABLE TALL BUILDINGS
Mir M. Ali, Ph.D. Paul J. Armstrong, March describe that this research paper examines the process of integration of tall building systems with special emphasis on sustain- able buildings. The design of tall buildings warrants a multidisciplinary approach and requires the integration of architectural components, structure, vertical transport- tion, ﬁre safety, energy conservation, and communication systems. A major component of this research entails the develop- mint of an “Integration Web” that illustrates the relation- ships and interdependence of the physical systems of tall buildings. It is a tool that can be used by architects, engi- nears, and planners to facilitate coordination. Similar to a “food web,” the Integration Web is related to each ma- jar function of the AIA contract including Architecture, Structure, Mechanical Electrical, and Plumbing (MEP), as well as municipal services. The Integration Web can be linked to LEED criteria for integration of sustainable and high-performance building features. Lastly, case studies of buildings are mentioned, which represent a new generation of sustainable high-rise build- inks that are challenging conventional high-rise building practices and setting trends for such future projects incur- prating innovations in materials and smart building sys- teems. These buildings are seemingly well-tuned to their climate; and they provide a major portion of their own energy requirements through integrated passive design, day lighting, and intelligent control systems.
OBJECTIVES OF BYE-LAWS
To make it easier to pre-plan the building activities.
Gives guidelines to the designing architect or engineer.
Prevents haphazard development without any resemblance to the development of the area as a whole.
Gives safety (to humans who work & most importantly live in the buildings) against fire, noise, health, and hazard, structural failure (may be due to natural calamity).
NEED & IMPORTANCE OF BYE-LAWS:-
The basis for modern bye-laws, requirements look mysterious always to layman & even to many officials & most of them are based on natural scientific laws, known properties of building materials & inherent hazards of users.
The need for bye-laws becomes more important from the point of view in INDIA. The construction activity both in public & private sector in terms of building for industrial, commercial & residential & administrative user amount to 50% of outlay of any 5 year plan.
With this certain projects can be delayed over a period of time to get completed. Eg. ST. MARK’S PIAZZA, hence it would loose their identity in terms of MASS & SPACE RELATIONSHIP.
If we talk about the cities, if we loose control over the construction activity then the problems like
Visual disorder, traffic becomes uncontrollable, uncomfortable living, environmental problems etc.
In the absence of suitable bye-laws & machinery to enforce them, the poor people will be left at the mercy of well to do people.
Building bye laws are made to ensure orderly development of localities in urban areas so that every houses is assured of good ventilation and no building affects the lighting and ventilation of neighbors.
There has to be laws or regulations binding on the prospective builders, if not, the building constructed will be:
Even a jungle in a planned way will be aesthetically satisfying the needs of the occupants and to enable them to stay or live in a healthy environment.
The buildings should not be constructed merely with profit motive without paying any attention to the health and comfort of the in-habitants.
The buildings must get sufficient sunshine, air and ventilation.
Open spaces should be well planned.
The buildings should create better environment.
The buildings should be located in healthy surroundings and should have an aesthetic appearance.
But to achieve all this, there has to be a suitable regulations or what are know as model building bye-laws, enforced strictly by the authorities, and followed by the builders honestly and truthfully.
These buildings Bye Laws Are Drawn Up By A Panel Experts In Various Branches Of The Building Industry Such As:
- Town Planning
- Civil Engineering
- Electrical Engineering
- Fire-fighting and administration etc.
Theses building bye-laws when formulated are enforced on all buildings whether constructed by government, local bodies, private persons or agencies.
Important Definitions in Bye laws:-
Apartment/Flats shall means residential buildings constructed in a detached or semi-detached manner being designed as Ground Floor plus more upper floors and constructed as separate dwelling unit with common staircase.
Means all types of permanent building defined in (a) to (r) below, but structure of temporary nature like tents, hutment as well as shamans erected for temporary purposes for ceremonial occasions, with the permission of the Competent Authority, shall not be considered to be “buildings”.
Means a building or part thereof where groups of people congregate or gather for amusement, recreation, social, religious, patriotic, civil, travel and similar purposes.
“Assembly building” include buildings of drama and cinema theatres, city halls, town halls,
Auditoria, exhibition halls, museums, “marriage hall”, “skating rings”, gymnasia, stadia, restaurants, eating or boarding houses, place of worship, dance halls, clubs, gymkhanas, road, air, sea or other public transportation stations and recreation piers
Means any building or part thereof used for transaction of record therefor, offices, banks, all professional establishments, court houses classified as business buildings if their principal function is transaction of business and/or keeping of books and records.
Means a building with walls and roofs independent of any other building and with open spaces on all sides.
Means a building having one or more side attached with wall and roof with other building.
Means a building exclusively used for a school or college, recognized by the appropriate Board or University, or any other Competent Authority involving assembly for instruction, education or recreation incidental to educational use, and including a building for such other uses incidental thereto such as a library or a research institution.
It shall also include quarters for essential staff required to reside in the premises, and a building used as a hostel captive to an educational institution whether situated in its campus or not.
Means a building or part thereof used for, –
(i) storage, handling, manufacture or processing of radio-active substances or of highly combustible or explosive materials or products which are liable to burn with extreme rapidity and/or producing poisonous fumes or explosive enable tubs.
(ii) storage, handling, manufacture or processing of, which involves highly corrosive, toxic obnoxious alkalis, acids, or a other liquids, gases or chemicals producing flame, fumes, and explosive mixtures or which result in division of matter into fine particles and capable of spontaneous ignition.
Means a building or part thereof wherein products or, material are fabricated, assembled or processed, such as assembly plants, laboratories, power plants, refineries, gas plants, mills dairies and factories.
Means a building or premises or part thereof whose sole or principal use is for an office or for office purposes or clerical work, “Office purposes”
Includes the purpose of administration, clerical work, handling money, telephone, telegraph and computer operation; and clerical work” includes writing, book-keeping, sorting papers typing, filing, duplicating, punching cards or tapes, machines calculations, drawing of matter for publication and editorial preparation of matter of publication.
“Institutional building” :-
Means a building constructed by Government, Semi-Government organizations, public sector undertakings, registered Charitable Trusts for their public activities, such as education, medical, recreational and cultural , hostel for working women or men or for an auditorium or complex for cultural and allied activities or for an hospice, care of orphans, abandoned women, children and infants, convalescents, destitute or aged persons and for penal or correctional detention with restricted liberty of the inmates ordinarily providing sleeping accommodation, and includes dharamshalas, hospitals, sanatoria, custodian and penal institutions such as jails, prisons, mental hospitals, houses of correction, detention and reformatories building constructed for the promotion of Tourism such a, stared hotels, clubs, golf course, sport stadium and all activities of Tourist Unit as may be declared by Government from time to time.
“Low rise building”:-
Shall mean a building having height up to 16.50 mts. and having ground floor plus four floors. However hollow plinth up to 2.8 mts and parapet on terrace up to 1.5mts shall not be counted.
Shall mean building other than mentioned in 2.9 (j) “Low Rise Building” provided the maximum permissible height shall not exceed 40 mts.
Means a building constructed by Government, Semi-Government organizations, public sector under-takings, registered Charitable Trust or such other organizations for their non-profitable public activities
Means a building in which sleeping accommodation is provided for normal residential purposes, with or without cooking or dining facilities, and includes one or more family dwellings, lodging or boarding houses, hostels, dormitories, apartment houses, flats and private garages of such buildings.
Means a building or part thereof used primarily for storage or shelter of goods, merchandise and includes a building used as a warehouse, cold storage freight depot, transit shed, store house, public garage, hanger, truck terminal grain elevator, barn and stable.
Shall mean a land/plot or part of a land/plot or combination of more than one land/plot as approved by the Competent Authority. Provided however where an alignment has been fixed on any road by any Competent Authority, the building unit shall mean and refer to the land excluding the portion falling in alignment.
“Built Up Area”:-
Means the area covered by a building on all floors including cantilevered portion, if any, but except the areas excluded specifically under these Regulations.
Shall mean a common open space exclusive of margins and approaches, at a height not more than ground level of the building unit. The owner shall have to give an undertaking that the common plot shall be for the common use of all the resident or occupants of the building unit, free of cost.
On sanction of the development permission, the common plot shall deem to have vested in the society/association of the residents/occupants. In case such society or Association is to be formed, the possession/custody of common plot shall remain with Competent Authority until such association/society is formed.
The common plot shall not be sold to any other person and it shall not be put to any other use except for the common use of the residents/occupants.
Means a shelter consisting of residential accommodation for one family. Provided that the minimum accommodation in a dwelling unit shall be one room of minimum carpet area of 9 sq.mts. with a minimum side of 2.4 Mts. and a w.c.
SETBACKS, MARGIN & F.S.I
SETBACKS (called as BUILDING LINE):-
Means the line up to which the plinth of a building adjoining a street or an extension of a street or on a future street may lawfully extend and includes the lines prescribed, in any T.P. scheme and/or Development Plan.
Roads can be widened due to presence of setbacks.
Constructs one line parallel to axis of road, resulting in improvement of road.
Results in better condition of air, light & ventilation of building.
Reduces danger of fire.
IF NO SETBACKS THEN?
Intersections of roads increase without setbacks.
If no setbacks then invisibility along road or street.
Increases danger of accidents.
It will lack the parking spaces as a chaos has been prevailing.
Width of setback varies from 1mts to 1.50mts for congested areas & 4.50mts to 6mts for new underdeveloped areas
The width of front set back shall be regulated as per provisions indicated in respect of residential, commercial and industrial buildings and also in accordance with the provisions of ground coverage and F .A.R. restrictions in respect of group housing, institutional and other public buildings.
The side setbacks shall be optional. Where left it shall not be less than 2 miters or 1/6th of the height of the building whichever is more.
The width of the rear set back, if left at any point of building, it shall not be less than 3 miters or 1/5th of the height of the building whichever is more.
Shall mean space fully open to sky provided at the plot level from the edge of the building wherein built-up area shall not be permitted except specifically permitted projections under this regulation
Margin on road side:-
Margin other than road side:-
Margin for high rise building:-
FLOOR SPACE INDEXES (F.S.I.):-
Means quotient of the ratio of the combined gross floor area of the all floors including areas of all walls, except areas specifically exempted under these Regulations, to the total area of the plot/building unit.
An FSI of 2.0 would indicate that the total floor area of a building is two times the gross area of the plot on which it is constructed, as would be found in a multiple-story building.
The illustration shows a Floor Space Index (FSI) of 1.0.
This simply means that, if the area of the plot is 100 m2, then 100 m2 of gross floor area has been built on the plot.
The illustration shows a 4-story building covering 1/4 of the site, giving a FSI of 1.0.
Four floors of 25 m2 each are built on a site of 100 square meters.
Some ways to get to a FSI of 1.5:
- Build a 2-story building on 75% of the site (2 x 0.75 = 1.5)
- Build a 3-story building on 50% of the site (3 x 0.5 = 1.5)
- Build a 4-story building on 37.5% of the site (4 x 0.375 = 1.5)
- Calculate no of story if FSI is 1.5 and ground coverage is 25% for 100 sq.mt. plot size
- 5 = Total built up area / 100
- Total built up area = 100 * 1.5 =150
- No of stories = (total built up area) / (ground coverage)
- No of stories = 150 / 25 = 6 Stories
PERMISSIBLE FSI FOR RESIDENTIAL ZONE:-
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