Principle of Planning

building Civil Engineering Planning & design Uncategorized



For successful planning there are some principles. And for good planning we have to study deeply these principles. But all the principles of the planning are not to strictly obey. The major principles of planning are as under.


There are separate rooms for different activities. When the activities of rooms are directly connected to other room, these types of rooms should be provided besides. The room, which requires peace and concentration, such rooms, is provided away from activated rooms. Dining room, kitchen, bathroom and W.C. should be provided near by for economy in water supply and drainage line.


Silence should be necessary in bedroom, study room, puja room for rest, sleeping, concentration, and meditation respectively. Noise should be not disturbed these rooms. Such room is to be kept away from activated room. Dining room, kitchen, bathroom and W.C. More over neutral light should be available to these rooms.


In the different rooms atmosphere should be healthy for the healthy atmosphere ventilation for air, sufficiently light and cleanliness are necessary.


  1. In dry atmospheric area the area windows should be more than 1/10 of carpet area.
  2. In wet weathered area, the area of window should be more than 1/6 of carpet area.
  3. Total area of door and windows should not be less than 1/7 part of carpet area.
  4. Area of ventilators should be 0.1 square rneter per ten meter cube.


  1. Walla, ceiling and flooring should be flat.
  2. Angles between walls and ceiling should not be kept round for cleanliness.
  3. Engraving should be minimized as far as possible.
  4. Floor should be prepared watertight.
  5. Flooring of bathroom and W.C. must be watertight.
  6. Skirting in the room walls and dado in the bath, W.C. and kitchen should be provided.
  7. In case of wetness, sunlight must be entered in the room.
  8. In the public buildings dtisihmand spittoon should be provided.


We have to consider about circulation or good planning. We have to provide required space for circulation. The circulation space should be easy and not disturbing other room’s activity.

There are two types of circulation:-

  • Horizontal
  • Vertical

If we do not provide proper space for circulation, our planning will not be successful and there will be wastage of time, space and labor.

For horizontal circulation we have to provide doors and passages.


  1. Fresh air and light can enter in the room.
  2. Indicated activities should not be disturbed.
  3. Doors and windows should be provided such that it gives cross ventilation.
  4. Door should touch the wall in open condition.
  5. Privacy, piece and concentration room should be maintained.


  • Passage should be straight, short and of sufficient width
  • It should be airy.
  • In case of privacy of room passage should not disturb the room and hence it shouldnot be too wide.
  • There should not be off set and curves in the passage.
  • Steps are not desirable in passages.
  • Passage should be connected with all the doors and staircase. For vertical circulation we have to provide stair, lift, slope or escalators.


  1. To go the upper floor the stair must be provided internal side of the house.
  2. For residential building minimum dimension of the staircase should be, Length 1000mm Riser 250 mm Tread 190 mm
  3. There should not be less than 3 and more than 12 steps in one flights.
  4. For ordinary residential building 18 to 22 steps are required per floor.
  5. The material of stair should be fire proof.
  6. If we sufficient height we can provide bathroom, W.C. or store under the stair.


Fully successful planning should satisfy present and future requirements. To explain planning, points are to be considered:

  1. We should consider future indicated floor before constructing foundation of the building.
  2. The thickness of wall should also he considered satisfactorily.
  3. If we don’t want to construct the staircase though we have to consider about place of the stair.
  4. Store can be constructed in wider passage.
  5. We can also use the drawing room as the dining room i.e., drawing cum Dining room.
  6. Bedroom can also be used as study room.
  7. If the length of the room is more we can provide curtain, partition or furniture for different activities.
  8. We can differentiate the activities by providing unequal level of floor.


We should utilize all the space that we gain from planning. The dimension of the rooms should be sufficient otherwise there may be possibility of wastage or inconvenience. For arranging the furniture we have to provide more length in the plan. Furniture can be arranged more sufficiently in rectangular room than square room. The ratio of length and width of room should be 1.2 to 1.5. The height of the room should be in proportion with the room area and utility of the room. The space to be made air-conditioned should of lesser height.


The environment of the house should be suitable for use as home. End room has its own suitable atmosphere. Dimensions of the room, ventilation, doors, windows, colors of the wall and ceiling, location of the room, furniture, temperature etc. should be suitable to the utility of the room when we enter in the room, the impression of the atmosphere should be suitable to the activity of the room. The color of the room furniture and bed sheet and arrangement of the furniture should be suitable to the indicated activity of the room. To create good atmosphere the following points are to be considered.

  1. Color
  2. Decoration of the wall
  3. Furniture
  4. Curtain
  5. Temperature of the room
  6. Air circulation
  7. Light
  8. Dimension of the room


In convenience is faced many times. However in the inconvenience intelligence, clearness and skill is more helpful than knowledge for become successful. Instead of an old custom plan any modern planning is more impressive and useful. It requires foresight and wide experience with the help of balanced thinking; innovative technology and materials we can prepare better plan. In the following cases we have to plan with modern balanced thinking.

  1. In case of side oblique shape, planning should be such that the maximum land can be used
  2. Economical planning in slopping and hilly area.
  3. Planning should ix: such that, more than one activity can be performed in the room.
  4. Planning of stair in limited space.


We should arrange the rooms in such way that sun light; fresh and natural air can enter in rooms. We have to decided location and number/of doors, windows



Each room of house should have containing capacity of indicated furniture. Lay out and designs of various items are decided with reference of room size. The arrangement of furniture should not disturb circulation. To decide the room dimension of shops. Offices, hospitals, schools or library we have to consider about type and size of furniture. Furniture lay-out is designed in such a way that the room can be utilized to its maximum utility without any importance.


The elevation of the building play very important role in designing of pleasant building. The elevation of building should match with the use of different style and pattern of gallery, Chajja, canopy etc. size of doors and windows should be match with the size of the building curves, set back and angles are the various components which can be give attractive and beautiful elevation of the building. The color for the external surface should be made impressive, colorful and pleasant.


Surrounding of the site play very vital and important role in designing of the building. River, mountain trees should be given prime consideration in designing of various components of the building. The bedroom and drawing room should be suited such that the external natural elements can be seen. From inside. Ugly and unpleasant views should be minimized to look from the building. If no pleasant and natural components exist around the building side the rooms can be decorated with good paintings or wallpapers with natural scenes.


The planning and designing of the building is governed by two main criteria utility and economy. Utility is a function of requirement of the building for the use it is designed. Economy is also important factor to be considered in designing. It is clearly understood that economy doesn’t at the cost of the utility and elevations. The expenses, which can be minimized without effecting the utility and elevation, should be kept in mind.

There are various factors which governs the economy of the building as stated here under:

  1. Site of construction
  2. Design
  3. Planning
  4. Innovative Technology
  5. Decoration
  6. Administration
  7. Building materials.


The construction site should be selected such that the cost of the land is chipper. The site should be selected in the developing area. The land with higher bearing capacity may be selected for overall economy.


The construction should be load-bearing type R.C.C. type of construction. The structural design play very important role in economizing the construction. If not require the components like balcony, canopy, Chajja should be minimum. The building should be designed such a way that the ratio of carpet area to built-up area should be more. This can be achieved by eliminating unnecessary passages and no use areas. The quantity of doors and windows should be as required by law and function of the room.


The planning should be such that common wall are minimum. The projections and set back should be minimized in various spaces of rooms instead of providing separate storeroom. The quantity and size of doors and windows should be minimized. As far possible the local available material with the standard method of construction should be adopted. The finishing material should be such selected that it should serve the purpose of utility.


The innovative techniques of construction are utilized. The use of concrete mixer materials life and water pump may be used. The design concrete mix should be calculated as per the latest concrete mix design methods. The materials like  P.V.C., Pre-cast blocks and P.V.C pipes may be used instead of conventional material.


The design of the building should give pleasant elevation. The elevation treatment should be simple, economical and attractive.


Administration of purchase of material and education of work should be efficient. The material should be purchased in a bulk and in required quantity. The time limit of completion of the construction should be fixed and the work should be completed in the stipulated time limit. Critical path method and bar chart method should be adopted for timely efficiently completion of the work.


The cost of the building can be decreased by using alternative materials but the alternative materials should not decrease safely and efficiency of the building. The material should be used in views of the use tiles. M.S. or hollow block frame, wooden frame or plastic pain. The locally available material should be used.


What is Green Building?

“Green” Buildings are high performance structures that also meet certain standards for reducing natural resource consumption

“Green” or “Sustainable” buildings are characterized by:

  • efficient management of energy and water resources
  • management of material resources and waste
  • restoration and protection of environmental quality
  • enhancement and protection of health and indoor environmental quality
  • reinforcement of natural systems
  • analysis of the life cycle costs and benefits of materials and methods
  • integration of the design decision-making process

“Metrics” for such “green” benefits are  articulated and certified by LEED, Built Green or other organizations

Green standards measure different environmental qualities of buildings

Each has a different emphasis and purpose

Green Building standards include:-

  • Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)
  • Green Globes
  • Model Green Homebuilding Guidelines
  • Built Green
  • Energy Star
  • Living Build

Why Build “Green”?

Advantages of Buildings vs. Conventional Buildings

  • Cost Savings (First-Cost Savings; Ongoing Operating Expense Reductions)
  • Minimize Impact on Environment
  • Enhanced Health & Productivity of Occupants
  • Increased Value & Lease-Up Rates
  • Community & Social Benefits
  • Other Owner Benefits (Lender Incentives; Tax Abatements; Etc.)

 Benefits of green buildings :-

Tangible benefits

  • Energy savings : 40-50%
  • Water saving : 20-30%

Intangible benefits

  • All good aspects associated to green

Better indoor ambience

  • Day lighting & views
  • Improved health and productivity

 Intangible benefits of green building :-

Health and safety benefits

  • Enhance occupant comfort

Improve productivity of occupants

  • 12-15% improvements documented in school & other building.

Parts of  green building:-

  • Green Roof
  • Rain Water Harvesting
  • Solar Energy
  • Geothermal Air Cooling System
  • E.D
  • E.E.D




A green roof is a roof of a building that is partially or completely covered with vegetation and a growing medium, planted over a waterproofing membrane. It may also include additional layers such as a root barrier and drainage and irrigation systems.

 Necessity of green roof:- 

The groundwater resources in India are greatly diminishing by several centimeters per year and are not being replaced. As global warming becomes more and more of an issue, and towns and cities expand, green space is becoming more and more important. Green roofs are particularly useful at filtering out pollutants from the air and such, purifying it.

 About Green Roofs:- 

A green roof system is an extension of the existing roof which involves a high quality water proofing and root repellent system, a drainage system, filter cloth, a lightweight growing medium and plants.

Green roof systems may be modular, with drainage layers, filter cloth, growing media and plants already prepared in movable, interlocking grids, or, each component of the system may be installed separately. Green roof development involves the creation of “contained” green space on top of a human-made structure. This green space could be below, at or above grade, but in all cases the plants are not planted in the “ground’.  Green roofs can provide a wide range of public and private benefits.

 Two types of green roofs:-

Extensive green roofs range from one to five inches in soil depth, normally consist of mosses, herbs and grasses, and are built primarily for their environmental benefits rather than public access.

Intensive green roofs require at least a foot of soil depth, an elaborate irrigation and drainage system, and require maintenance. Intensive green roofs contain trees and shrubs and are typically designed to be publicly accessible.

 Green roofs differ from a rooftop garden or a container garden:-

because green roofs are an extension of the actual roof.

This “extension” is created by using

  • a specially designed root repelling membrane
  • a drainage system
  • a lightweight growing medium, and plants appropriate for the size and depth of the green roof.

 Some of the benefits green roofs provide:-

  • storm water management (through retention/filtration),
  • water and air quality improvement,
  • SMOG reduction
  • increased life expectancy of roof membranes
  • noise reduction
  • increased energy efficiency and biodiversity preservation

  Roof Garden Assembly Types:-

  • Ultra-Extensive/Shallow –   < 4” deep
  • Extensive/Medium –   4” – 8” deep
  • Intensive/Deep –   > 8” deep

 Shallow Assembly:-

  1. Growth Media
  2.  Moisture Retention Mat
  3.  Drainage Board
  4.  Protection Fabric
  5.  Membrane ( Adhered )
  6.  Dens-Deck
  7.  Approved Insulation
  8. Substrate

Medium Assembly:-

  1. Growth Media
  2. Moisture Retention Mat
  3. Drainage Board
  4. Root Barrier
  5. Protection Fabric
  6. Membrane ( Adhered )
  7. Dens-Deck
  8. Approved Insulation
  9. Substrate

Deep Assembly:-

  1. Growth Media
  2. Protection Fabric
  3. Drainage Gravel
  4. Protection Fabric
  5. Root Barrier
  6. Extruded Polystyrene
  7. Membrane ( Adhered )
  8. Dens-Deck
  9. Approved Insulation

                            Shallow Assembly                    Medium Assembly                     Deep Assembly                    


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